PDF | On Jan 1, , Ángel Gil Hernández and others published Tratado de Nutrición. Volumen III. Nutrición Humana en el Estado de Salud. In book: Tratado de Nutrición, Edition: Second, Chapter: 3, Publisher: Médica Panamericana, Editors: Ángel Gil y Mª Dolores Ruiz, pp Cite this publication. Á Gil. tratado de nutrición, , Tratado de nutricion/Nutrition Treatise: Nutricion humana en el estado de salud/Human Nutrition in Health Status.
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New articles related to this author's research. Email address for updates. My profile My library Metrics Alerts. Sign in. Get my own profile Cited by View all All Since Citations h-index 32 19 iindex 59 University of Leon, Spain Verified email at unileon. Profesor Titular de Universidad.
Instituto Universitario de Biomedicina Verified email at unileon. Mar Almar Galiana Verified email at unileon. All these systems and other provided valuable information on total macro and some micro nutrients present in foods, and on the changes that took place after certain industrial and culinary manipulation.
In this way, it was possible to evaluate the influence of heat processes -boiling, frying, roasting, etc. The influence of other technological processes such as freezing, storage and refrigeration, could be followed, along with other questions, like nutrient loss, which were already beginning to have a certain resonance, as revealed by the study of Maillard reactions.
It should be emphasised that not only the negative aspects were being evaluated, but also other aspects of great importance, such as changes in the colour, flavour and taste of many foods submitted to industrial and home cooking processes, as manifested in the studies of Professor Varela and his group Additional information of enormous value was the study of the bioavailability of nutrients.
This is not a question of how much or how many nutrients there are in a food, but of their availability and how much or how many can be used by the person who consumes this food. For that appear in vivo and in vitro methods for measuring the nutrient bioavailability. In vivo methods for determining the digestive and metabolic quality of food already existed.
These techniques are very complex and require quite sophisticated installations, apart from animal maintenance and management facilities, control of the food intake and separation of faeces and urine for the corresponding analyses, etc.
For this reason and to obtain rapid methods for measuring the nutritive quality of foods through the evaluation of nutrients, Doctor Carpenter perfected the technique for determining available lysine in a complex and complicated method, fine-tuned in our group by Doctor Vidal Conchita. This technique had and still has great importance for monitoring the influence of technological treatments applied in the preparation of foods on nutrient availability, especially in cases involving heat1, 3.
Other methods appeared for determining the bioavailability of different nutrients by enzymatic hydrolysis and the measurement of "in vitro" absorption of the nutrients in the intestine everted sac of different animals or by in situ perfusion in anaesthetized animals, or by dialysis with semi permeable cellulose membranes4, etc.
In this respect, Professor Ponz of the University of Pamplona played a crucial role. Around the s the study of digestive, pancreatic, biliary and salival secreting was consolidated. These techniques were important in themselves from a physiological point of view, but an invaluable complement for understanding the regulation of the processes involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolic fate of absorbed nutrients.
At this time, using surgery, a system of canulas which entered and re-entered given points of the animal intestine permitted the detailed in vivo study of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. This provided important information on the physiological mechanisms involved in the digestive process in the stomach and small and large intestines, for example.
This project absorbed the energies of many people, especially in the group upervised by Professor Boza and, later by Dr. In this same period, thanks to one of the many ingenious ideas that Prof. But the questions now for the fish chronobiology group are: What to feed, When, How, and How much to feed and the answers are: Diet, Feeding rhythms, Feeding systems and Self-feeding device.
Culebras, among others, helped establish the basis of enteral and, especially, parenteral nutrition, making rapid advances both as regards the models and techniques of administration and the suitability of the formulas to administer.
At the same time, there were important advances made in the design and distribution of food, almost reaching a la carte status. At that time there was a great change in our group since Professor Varela took up a position in Madrid and our friend Professor Murillo, who had succeeded him, died in a domestic accident, having made such huge efforts to forward the concept of nutrition.
This event still remains painful for me and many others -suffice to say, that there will always be a before and an after in our professional careers and personal feelings. This was an important decision on Pepe.
Pepe was, is, and will certainly remain an important player in the field Infant nutrition merits special attention because this field has undergone special development in Spain, both at social and research levels. Many universities, hospitals and research centres have contributed to the important advances made in the design and manufacture of foods for lactating and post-lactating children -both healthy and those less fortunate. The resulting milks, baby foods and beikosts bear this out But not all was a bed of roses!
The period to which I refer also witnessed the first great contradictions related with nutrition.
I am going to detail the first of these refers to the best diet models. The diet of the richest countries produces the tallest individuals. But precisely the result of the seven countries study, the most developed countries also have the highest rates of death through myocardial infarction, while the "poor" south of Europe bordering the Mediterranean have a much lower incidence.
This led to the greatest invention of all time -the Mediterranean diet- what a pity that Doctors Ancel and Margaret Keys did not patent the idea! This is a balanced, varied diet that has been seen to provide many advantages to those who follow it The second problem is cardiovascular disease and the consumption of blue fish. Patients have always been recommended to lower their consumption of cholesterol and fat especially saturated fat and to eat white fish, chicken, etc.
With the discovery of prostaglandins synthesis it was established that fish fat is healthy for the heart and that blue fish should be included in the diet. When it was concluded that plasma cholesterol basically comes from saturated fatty acids reaching the liver, the cholesterol contained in the diet loses importance.
The use of the term "Mediterranean diet" has led to our country to be at the bottom of the league table for cardiovascular diseases and death from myocardial infarction. But this time, being last is good. The works of Professor Varela and, especially, of Professor Olga Moreiras have been fundamental in the field of health and its relation with nutrition and eating habits the Mediterranean Diet, again Thirdly problem: the epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity especially in developing countries.
We are evolutionarily designed to live a life of austerity and to consume a small amount of food, while expending great energetic effort. However, in this age of plenty, we live with an abundance of everything and make little physical effort. We therefore get fat. To solve this problem quickly come along many miraculous diets we all know so well -but only one balanced diet, with low calories is the physiological option. Changes in the feeding pattern and the subsequent unbalance in the caloric profile of the diet may have had great importance in the occurrence of obesity27, But if nutrients do not reach the internal medium in given proportions it will be difficult, and in some cases impossible, to obtain energy from them.
If we do not use them, they will be stored and the only way our organism knows how to do this is in the form of triglycerides, that is accumulating fat in adipose tissue.
We should remember that when glycaemia is compromised, it is impossible to use fatty acids as energy substrate, and they produce hyperlipemia. American Asociation for Artificial Intelligence , New England Journal of Medicine 6 , , Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 51 1 , , Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 61 2 , , Journal of Biological Chemistry 26 , , World journal of gastroenterology: WJG 20 2 , , Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 22 7 , , Articles 1—20 Show more.
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